Recent studies have reported that frequent peanut consumption may have positive effects on blood lipid profiles. This role of peanuts as a potential functional food is due mainly to its lipid composition. Consumers are demanding convenient and health-improving meal items, and sales of muffins have increased. Thus, muffins may serve as an excellent carrier to deliver the health benefits of peanuts. Previous studies on peanut utilization in muffins focused on increasing protein content by using defatted peanut materials. However, the potential functionality of peanut lipid suggests the need to investigate its inclusion in muffins. In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the effects of replacing wheat flour by partially defatted (12 fat, d.b.) peanut flour (PF, at 0, 40, 80), and the addition of peanut butter (PB, at 0, 21.5, 35.4, wt of dry ingredients) on physical properties of muffins. Experimental muffins containing 0 PF + 0 PB, and commercial banana-walnut muffins were used as controls. Replacement of wheat flour by PF or addition of PB significantly (P < 0.05) increased tenderness of the muffins. Peanut butter was the major factor decreasing muffin volume when formulations contained > 20 PB. As PF was increased, the outer surface of muffins became more browner, whereas increased PB gave rise to a more intense hue. Internal crumb color became darker and more intense brown as both PF and PB were increased. RSM predicted that formulations ranging from 0 PF + 32 PB through 30 PF + 15 PB to 61 PF + 0 PB would have optimum texture and volume. Findings indicate the potential for production of good quality muffins containing up to 32 wt of peanut materials per weight of total ingredients, and < 18 peanut lipid in the baked products.
Keywords: Baked goods, food consumption, lipids, peanut flour
How to Cite:
Hinds, M., (2003) “Physical Properties of Muffins Containing Peanut Flour and Peanut Butter”, Peanut Science 30(1), p.67-73. doi: https://doi.org/10.3146/pnut.30.1.0014