Shandong province is the leading peanut-producing province in China which in turn is the leading peanut-producing country in the world. Shandong Peanut Research Institute (SPRI), an institute of the Shandong Academy of Agricultural Science, has had an ongoing breeding program for more than 40 yr and is the source of the peanut cultivars that dominate production in Shandong province and northern China. About 75 peanut cultivars and breeding lines have been released in Shandong by SPRI and other institutions. The genetic base of Shandong peanut cultivars has been described as narrow. The objective of this study was to (a) determine the genetic contribution of main ancestors to the genetic base of Shandong peanut cultivars and (b) study the genetic relationships among the peanut cultivars released in Shandong province during 1950-1999. Twentysix ancestors were identified in the pedigrees of 69 improved lines, 24 ancestors of Chinese origin contributed 96.1% of the Shandong peanut genetic base, and two exotic introductions contributed only 3.6%. The four most important ancestors based on average coancestry with the 69 improved lines are Fu Hua Sheng (PI 436545), Shi Tou Qi (PI 430227 and PI 461435), Jianggezhuang Ban Man (PI 433351), and Shuyang Da Zhan Yang from which 67, 28, 27 and 19 lines were derived, respectively. Among the 20 dominant cultivars of Shandong province, recently released cultivars Lu Hua 14 and Lu Hua 15 have the lowest average coancestry with the others which means those two new cultivars' have the high genetic divergence. In contrast, the very popular cultivars Fu Hua Sheng, Baisha 1016, Xuzhou 68-4, Lu Hua 9, and the new cultivar 8130 were closely related to the other cultivars. The results suggest that the genetic base of Shandong peanut cultivars released before 1990 is narrow, but that cultivars released after 1990 have broadened the genetic base due to introduction and use of new germplasm in the pedigrees. This information will be used as a guide for peanut breeders in choosing parents and avoiding genetic vulnerability to pests. For new cross combinations, parents with low coefficients of coancestry should be chosen in order to keep enlarging the gene pool of the new cultivars.
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Keywords: Arachis hypogaea L, coefficient of coancestry, genetic base, Genetic Vulnerability
How to Cite:
Xue, H. & Isleib, T., (2002) “Genetic Relationships Among Peanut Cultivars and Breeding Lines in Shandong Province, PRC”, Peanut Science 29(2), p.95-101. doi: https://doi.org/10.3146/pnut.29.2.0004