1Cooperative investigation of the USDA-ARS and University of Georgia, College of Agriculture.
Peanut root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne arenaria (Neal) Chitwood race 1) is a serious pathogen in commercial peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) production. There is no peanut cultivar with resistance to this nematode. The primary constraint in the development of resistant cultivars has been the absence of identified sources of resistance in A. hypogaea and related wild species. The objective of this study was to examine the wild Arachis spp. collection of the Coastal Plain Experiment Station for sources of resistance to M. arenaria. Thirty-six wild Arachis spp. genotypes were compared with the susceptible cv. Florunner for resistance to M. arenaria reproduction and galling response in two greenhouse tests. A. monticola Krap. et Rig., a member of the second-order gene pool, was the only wild species tested which did not have a gall index and egg-mass index significantly lower than that of A. hypogaea. There was no significant difference between A. monticola and A. hypogaea for the number of eggs per root system or per gram of fresh root weight. In addition, the host efficiency of A. monticola was 3.49, indicating a high level of susceptibility. All genotypes examined from the third-order gene pool species (A. cardenasii Krap. et Greg. nom. nud., A. duranensis Krap. et Greg. nom. nud., A. helodes Martius ex Krap. et Rig. and A. villosa Benth.) exhibited significantly less plant damage and nematode reproduction than A. hypogaea. Except for one A. villosa genotype, all entries from the third-order gene pool exhibited high levels of resistance to M. arenaria based on a host efficiency less than 1.00. All fourth-order gene pool accessions examined (A. burkartii Handro, A. glabrata Benth., and A. hagenbeckii Harms.) exhibited high levels of resistance to M. arenaria. These results indicate that resistance to M. arenaria is prevalent in both the third- and fourth-order gene pools of peanut. These results increase the probability of success in developing peanut cultivars with resistance to M. arenaria since species in the third-order gene pool are cross compatible with A. hypogaea. Based on genetic theory, these results also increase the probability of resistance to M. arenaria in the first-order gene pool. Therefore, further screening for resistance to M. arenaria in A. hypogaea is recommended.
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Keywords: Arachis hypogaea, Arachis spp, Meloidogyne arenaria, peanut root-knot nematode, resistance
How to Cite:
Holbrook, C. & Noe, J., (1990) “Resistance to Meloidogyne arenaria in Arachis spp. and the Implications on Development of Resistant Peanut Cultivars¹”, Peanut Science 17(1), p.35-38. doi: https://doi.org/10.3146/i0095-3679-17-1-12